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School in Illinois, 1936

    From: Mary Damer
    Date: Sunday, January 12, 1997



    I came across an interesting find yesterday in a dusty antique story in the middle of rural Illinois which has triggered all sorts of memories. All day I had been observing in two out-of-control seventh grade classrooms and one lunch room-from-hell in a small rural community. (for those of you who are new to the Illinois Loop, I work as a behavior consultant in classrooms, i.e. trying to get teachers to start teaching.) By the time I left the school, I had a migraine - all manner of food had been thrown during lunch and I had seen more than 10 physical assaults; during four hours of science and social studies classes exactly twenty minutes of teaching had occurred, and when I wrote down grossly inappropriate behaviors students were doing in their cooperative groups (headlocks, jabbing, calling each other "queer," sitting in each other's lap, etc.) , I filled two pages in 20 minutes. The scene was comparable to inner city classes I had visited 20 years ago, only teachers weren't paying any of the students a quarter to keep order.

    When I compiled my thoughts and sat down with the teacher and principal to discuss the first step to establishing some order, they looked at me like I had just arrived from the moon, because I was giving them tips on how to start TEACHING. I realized that it would have been better if they had never gone through a school of education because then their childhood vision of "teaching the Barbie Dolls" would have remained. These teachers are trying to run effective cooperative groups and have these students teach each other and all my suggestions ran in the opposite direction of what they are attempting to do. I don't know if they even know WHAT they are attempting to do, but structuring a solid lesson was so foreign to them. I am seeing this scenario more and more.

    Driving through the countryside on my way home, I decided to salvage the day by stopping at a quaint Victorian home which had been converted to an antique shop. Browsing through the artifacts I happened across a thin book preserved in plastic wrapping and priced at $2.00, entitled Manual of the Common Schools: LaSalle, County, Illinois, 1936-37, W.R. Foster, County Superintendent of Schools. After my long day, I was curious to read what this county supt. had written sixty years ago. I was especially curious because I was raised in LaSalle County which was one county over where I had been observing on this day.

    Later that night as I look through the dusty manual, a flood of memories came racing back. I remembered W.R. Foster's grim looking picture on the walls of my junior high school and at least once or twice a teacher or principal telling us (students) how lucky we were that Foster was no longer in charge of county schooling, because students no longer had to take those dreaded tests. Some of the older teachers would recount how they had to pass those tests and how formidable they had been. The book ended with a list of names of students who had passed the eighth grade tests that year, and I was able to pick out the names of a few neighbors and shopkeepers. I couldn't help but wonder how different my own education would have been had the dreaded Mr. Foster been in charge. My entire first year of college was spent catching up to my fellow students from the suburbs and frankly much of my interest in education began at that time when I realized how many hours I had wasted in high school listening to coaches talk about their teams instead of teaching, or having hung-over teachers stumble in, forcing their eyes open. I don't know if there was more accountability with Mr. Foster, but he certainly had some interesting things to say.

    My favorite section in this document was the one on "reviewing." What a difference from the current attitude toward testing. Hope this is as interesting to you as it was to me.

    -- Mary

    (Editor's note: Please ignore the minor quibbles in the text resulting from the scanning, conversion to text, and formatting for presentation here.)


    Manual of the Common Schools
    LaSalle County, Illinois
    1936 - 1937



    Manual of the Common Schools
    LaSalle County, Illinois
    1936 - 1937

    Supplement to the State Course of Study

    By W. R. Foster
    County Superintendent of Schools

    Pupils' Edition

    FOREWORD

    For public school purposes La Salle County is divided into thirty-two school townships (6 miles square) and these in turn into 282 school districts; of which 240 are rural; 17 village; 12 city (grade schools with boards of education); 4 township -high schools; 8 community high schools and I non-high school. These districts own and occupy 302 school buildings valued at $5,235,965, with equipment estimated at $628,099, making a total capital investment of $5,864,064. Last year these schools employed 776 teachers and enrolled 17,674 pupils, 4969 of whom were in the high schools. The current expense of all these schools was $1,234,321.

    This Manual, compiled by the county superintendent under the direction of the Committee on Education, is published by the Board of Supervisors for gratuitous distribution. It is designed to supplement the State Course of Study by adapting that course to the uniform texts used by the village and rural schools. It aims to systematize the work of these schools so that they may attain their greatest usefulness in promoting intelligent living, and sturdy citizenship.

    To this end the Manual establishes the minimum amount of school work each class shall accomplish month by month during a term of nine months each year for eight years. It provides that all pupils who complete this course creditably shall receive a county diploma that is accepted by the high schools in lieu of entrance examinations. It also provides that pupils who excel in regular and punctual attendance each year shall be suitably recognized, and that all pupils who comply with the requirements of the Illinois Pupils' Reading Circle shall be awarded library diplomas on the completion of each year's work.

    While the Manual establishes minimum standards for each grade, it leaves the teacher free to employ such methods of instruction and management as are best suited to the needs of her pupils. It recognizes that the training and the resourcefulness of the teacher, the aptness and application of the pupils, and the cooperation and assistance of school officers and patrons are, after all, the essential and potent forces that make for real school efficiency. Hence, the Manual seeks to aid in unifying these forces and inspiring the pupils in these schools that even finer achievements in scholarship and self-direction may crown their efforts.

    OUTLINE OF ORGANIZATION

    PLAN OF ORGANIZATION.-Inasmuch as the "eight grade" plan, the basic organization of elementary schools, necessitates more recitation periods than can be provided for adequately in the smaller schools, a plan of alternation is used in some studies whereby the number of recitations per day is reduced one-third and the length of each correspondingly increased. The work for grades. 3, 5 and 7 in the alternated studies is given in the years ending in odd numbers and that for grades 4, 6 and 8 in those ending in even numbers. Village schools, however, should do as little alternating as possible.

    ADJUSTMENTS.-In all classes alternated by grades, the teacher must be very careful to see that the upper grade of each group, i. e., 4, 6 or 8, is held to markedly higher standards than the one with which it is reciting, i. e., 3, 5 or 7.

    PROMOTIONS.-As a general rule pupils should be promoted only at the end of the year and then only when (a) they have been regular in attendance, (b) they have made creditable advancement and (e) the average of the four bimonthly grades is 70 or more. It is a serious mistake to try to force pupils through two grades in one year, for it robs them of a year's growth in the elementary school and often makes them laggards instead of leaders in the upper grades. The best teachers never rob a pupil of his rightful inheritance-eight years of the best possible mental training in his elementary school course.

    It is a serious mistake, too, to start pupils in school before they are mentally mature enough to do the work readily. There, is grave danger of training them to become mental loafers, for being able to accomplish but little, they learn to sit and idle their time away until school is out.

    BI-MONTHLY EXAMINATIONS.-Tests covering the work outlined in this Manual for the, preceding two months will be sent from the office in time for the examination to be given in each school on the following Thursdays and Fridays: October 22-23, January 14-15, and March 11-12. The fourth test, covering the remainder of the year, will be given in each school about a week before the close of the term, to allow time for marking the papers and completing the reports and records. Each teacher will notify the office when to send this last set of questions.

    BI-MONTHLY GRADES.-The papers written in the bimonthly tests must be carefully graded by the teacher, each mistake being neatly indicated and each answer given its proper grade. The grades must then be entered on the two bimonthly report blanks, one for the office and one for the school, also on the pupil's report card. The papers must be returned to the pupils as soon as they are marked, and at least one recitation period spent by each class in discussing them and in comparing results. Reviews should then be planned to overcome any deficiencies that are revealed.

    FINAL EXAMINATIONS.-The final examination for the seventh and eighth grades, covering one- half of the two years of the grammar grade work (the eighth year's work), will be held in as many places as may be necessary, on Thursday and Friday, May 13-14, 1937. The papers written in this test will be graded at the office. Reports will be mailed to the. pupils and to the teachers. All seventh grade pupils will be awarded the certificate of promotion, and all eighth grade pupils (holders of certificates of promotion and those who possess acceptable credentials from other schools) will be awarded the county diploma, on passing this test.

    SPECIAL EXAMINATION.-To accommodate those who were unable to take the final examination in May and those who desire to be reexamined in the preceding year's work (the seventh), a special examination will be given on Thursday and Friday, May 6 and 7, 1937, at as many points in the county as may be necessary. The office should be notified as early as the first of April of those who desire to take this test. The papers will be graded at the office, and those who pass it are entitled to the same credentials that could be earned in the corresponding final examination.

    PASSING THE RIGHT TEST.-The responsibility of seeing that each eighth grader is being prepared to take the right test (special or final) next spring rests with the teacher. She needs to examine the credentials of grammar grade pupils carefully, and all who need to take the eighth year's work in order to complete their course must follow last year's manual in preparation for the "special." All doubtful cases should be referred to the office before the end of the first month.

    CERTIFICATE OF PROMOTION.-All pupils who complete their first year in the grammar grades are awarded a certificate of promotion from the seventh grade to the eighth grade. This certification of promotion must be earned in the "final" or special" examinations. It is awarded to each seventh grader whose combined grades in the bi-monthlies and the final average is 70 or better.

    THE COUNTY DIPLOMA.-Only eighth grade pupils (those who hold certificates of promotion, or equivalent credentials from another school) may receive this diploma on completing their second year's work in the grammar grades. It should be noted that each must pass in the seventh year's work and in the eighth year's work to secure a diploma, and he must earn a combined average of 75 or better.

    FINAL CREDITS.-The average of the grades earned in four bimonthly tests shall constitute half of the final credits and those earned in the "final" or "special" test the other half, provided the pupil receives no grade below 60 in the final examination or in the average of any study in the four bimonthly tests. It is necessary for the pupil to pass the fourth bimonthly test of last year and the first three tests of this year in order to combine his grades.

    PEP MEETINGS.-To promote wholesome school attitudes and develop effective study habits a sufficient number of these meetings will be conducted in September to accommodate the three upper grades and their teachers. Pupils will be shown how to get their lessons easier, how to sharpen school tools and how to avoid pitfalls. The past three years' experience with this promotional plan has proved its worth as a time-saving device and as an encouragement to improve school work.

    SCHOOL EXHIBITS.-Besides the customary exhibits of school work at P. T. A. meetings and special day exercises, each school makes a display of its best work at the T. R. C. meetings and at the April conference. Many T. R. C. groups are giving their patrons and pupils a preview of their contribution to the April exhibit. A special effort will be made to give the public an opportunity to view the county exhibit next spring.

    GRADUATION EXERCISES. A sufficient number of these will be held at central points to afford all the pupils in all the schools an opportunity to participate in the pupils' reading circle program-an opportunity of no small educative value. Diplomas and certificates will be presented and library diplomas and attendance awards will be given to pupils who have earned such recognition. The small admission fee is used to maintain a free supplementary reader library of 12,000 volumes. TO PUPILS

    ATTITUDE.-Your attitude toward your work at home, at school and elsewhere, determines your success more than anything else. If you are anxious to succeed, willing to try, and have grit enough to keep at a piece of work till it is well done, you will make a success of whatever you undertake. If you are too lazy to try, or think it is smart to slight your work, or if you haven't the grit to stick to your job, you won't get far either in school or out of it.

    If you have cultivated the right attitude toward school, you will be regular and punctual in attendance; you will be courteous and helpful to your teacher and your schoolmates; you will prepare your lessons thoroughly and recite or write them the very best you can every day, and you will willingly take part in all the clean fun and all the real work of the school. Pupils who maintain such an attitude are dependable, loyal and industrious. They are distinguished by their good behavior, good scholarship and good sportsmanship. They are the ones that are a blessing to their parents, a credit to their teachers and a joy to their friends.

    ATTENTION.-Who can "pay attention?" Practically every one can, part of the time at least. But compelling the mind to "pay attention" to the right thing at the right time makes the difference between success and failure. Therefore, those pupils who can control and direct their thinking so that the mind will "pay attention" only to the things that belong to the lesson, both in recitation and at study, are the ones that make the greatest success of their school work. "Paying attention," though, is something quite different from looking on. It means to think with the author or the speaker, excluding everything else from the mind. Some learn to pay attention more easily than others, but all must cultivate it, if they wish to make real progress. Others may assist you in acquiring this excellent habit, but to attain it in any marked degree requires real effort on your part-not once, but many, many times. You are your best teacher in learning to pay attention.

    LEARNING TO STUDY.-Some pupils can study better than others simply because they have learned "to pay attention" to the preparation of the lesson and nothing else during the study period. Many of them learned to do this without much effort, but most pupils have to try and try again before they can keep their minds on their lessons for more than a little while at a time. But those that persist can learn to shut other things out and compel the mind "to pay attention" to nothing but the lesson. They are the ones that make the best success and when they have really learned to study, "getting the lesson" becomes a game instead of a task, and then there is fully as much fun in preparing lessons and reciting them as there is in playing an interesting game. But pupils who let their minds wander while they are preparing their lessons ,ire sure to be disappointed. They are the ones that blame others for their own shortcomings, and are usually very ready to say "I can't."

    PREPARING THE LESSON.-A good way to prepare a lesson, especially one in history, civics, geography or physiology, is to think the last lesson through, calling to mind the important things learned, then recall the directions the-teacher gave about studying the one to be prepared. Then read the whole lesson through, giving special attention to the two or three main points it contains; close the book and think the lesson through to fix in mind these main points and the principal supporting details belonging to each. Read it again to see if any main point has been omitted and to get a clearer idea of the supporting details. They think it through to fix these in their proper order. A third reading and thinking the lesson through will give one a splendid mastery of the lesson. Persistent practice in preparing lessons in this way will strengthen the mind so these three steps can be taken quickly and with little effort.

    RECITING.- How well can you recite? As well as the very best, if you have learned "to pay attention" while studying and have practiced thinking lessons through. It also depends on now well you can connect every lesson up with those that preceded it and how well you have trained yourself to tell what you know, both in speaking and in writing. The recitation is your best chance in school to show how well you have mastered yourself and can do your thinking-how well you can arrange the facts of a lesson in mind and how well you can tell what you know. Reciting is a real game in which you are always trying to equal or excel the best, even your own best record. To become even fairly good at it, though, one has to practice, just as he does in any game of skill until he can do it automatically and easily. Then studying and reciting become a joy and "getting lessons" the best fun one call find.

    DEPORTMENT.-Good conduct is simply another way of showing that one pays attention. He has paid attention to right conduct until good behavior has become a habit. Sooner or later every boy or girl prefers to be known as well behaved, and it is pleasing to note that this preference is on the increase. A noticeable improvement has taken place in these later years in the conduct of pupils on the way to and from school, on the playground and in the school room. They act more considerately towards one another and towards their teacher and neighbors, due, no doubt, to good home influences and to better leadership on the part of the teacher, but principally to a better appreciation of fair play by the pupils themselves. They are not perfect by any means, but in most of the schools the boys and girls are proud of the reputation their school enjoys for good behavior.

    REVIEWING.-Why can some pupils do creditable work in daily recitations yet fail in their tests? In most cases it is due to a lack of practice in recalling the important points studied frequently enough to accustom the mind to such action. This ability to recall is really a mental habit. Some seek to acquire it unconsciously, but others have to practice it persistently. And. strange as it may seem, the very best practice one can have is that which is prompted and directed by himself in making his mind sketch through previous lessons frequently. It may easily become a game wherein one is continually finding that he can "beat his best" that he is "bigger and better," mentally, than ever before.

    Another cause of low grades in tests is the lack of practice in organizing the important facts of the daily lessons into the larger units of study of which they are a part, i. e., fixing them in mind in their proper order so as to understand how and why some of them are the causes of others. Here, again, the most profitable practice is derived from self- prompted and self-directed efforts. Teachers may suggest and encourage, but little improvement will be made until the pupil is eager to strengthen his mental abilities.

    A third cause of disappointment is indifferent language practice-being careless about telling on paper what one knows. This, too, is a mental habit that can be improved best through purposeful practice, seeing how clearly things can be told in all written work. Pupils who take pride in their ability to think and to tell, rarely omit important items, overlook explanations or fail to tell clearly all that they know on the subject.

    One can also strengthen his ability to recall, to organize and to tell by taking an active part in the class reviews; by keeping his mind attentive and alert to the subject and by trying to answer more than his share of the difficult questions. Good students learn to do these things reasonably well and succeed. Other.-, practice shunning them and are sure to be disappointed.

    PENMANSHIP

    Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays

    All pupils in grades two to eight will use the Zaner-Bloser Compendiums of Correlated Handwriting as follows: second grade, and last half of first, Compendium I; third and fourth grades, Compendium 111; and the four upper grades, Compendium V. Teachers will need to provide themselves with the Manual of Correlated Handwriting.

    At least fifteen minutes, preferably just before the afternoon recess, shall be devoted to practice work and instruction in this branch. Most of the instruction, however, needs to be of the demonstration type, wherein the teacher not only shows the class how to do this or that in their practice work, but shows each pupil how to overcome his difficulties-how to improve this phase or that feature of his penmanship, so that he may have definite goals to achieve in his practice work.

    The major aim of practice work in penmanship is to train the pupil to write legibly and readily. These can be most easily tested by asking "Can others read his writing readily?" In general, the first of these, legibility, is fairly well attained by the end of the third grade; hence it is "writing rapidly and easily" that needs to be stressed during the practice period, particularly in the upper grades.

    Effective practice work, however, cannot be secured unless the physical conditions are favorable, for writing is largely a manual art, the product of trained muscles and trained eyes, and progress in acquiring it is very dependent upon good posture to insure freedom of movement. But this necessitates each pupil being seated at a desk that is neither too high nor too low for him. Many a pupil is apt to choose a desk that is too high for him, thereby forcing the elbows to be raised too high for him or anyone else to do good writing. If the desk is too low or the seat and the desk too far apart, he is compelled to lean forward, tensing the muscles of the back and cramping the arm muscles until good writing is impossible. Upper grade pupils should be encouraged to test themselves in finding a suitable desk for practice work and in habituating themselves to well balanced postures.

    Most school desks are too rough to practice on when only a single sheet of paper is used. A heavy sheet of drawing paper with the smooth side up provides a good writing surface. Better still, though, is a desk sized sheet of glazed poster board, such as print shops use. In general, the pupils are well supplied with suitable material for profitable practice work, but special attention needs to be given to the steel pens, for the acid in the ink corrodes the writing points and spoils them within a few days.

    Practice work in penmanship really means trying to accomplish something, but all too often the practice work in penmanship is aimless motion making. This is worse than useless, for it helps to fix habits of cramped position and poor movement and it tends to increase the pupil's difficulties until he takes refuge in, "I can't." Each practice period should be used in trying to achieve some definite purpose not too many and not too difficult, but something purposeful, something that can be attacked with a vim.

    Pupils should be permitted, even encouraged, to practice writing during spare time. Used sheets of drawing paper are fine for practice work with a pencil, and old test papers can be utilized for practice with pen and ink, especially for movement exercises and letter spacing and retracing. Such practice work should be at least twice as large as ordinary writing, so as to magnify errors. Each, particularly the older ones, should have a definite aim in every practice he undertakes. It may be nothing more than improving his ability to write on the line; trying to make "d" so that it doesn't look like "ct" or "el," or "b" so that it can be distinguished from "li". Or, it may be, trying to find a writing posture that permits a freer movement; trying to acquire a more uniform slant, or trying to space letters and words more evenly. But whatever it is, it should be some form of trying, which, by the way, is far more than mere motion making. As soon as a pupil is willing, even eager, to choose his own goals and try to attain them, he is on the read to real progress-ready to make rapid improvement in his penmanship. It will be well for the four upper grades to study, discuss, and practice applying the eight suggestions, page 4 of Compendium V, especially the fourth one.

    In practicing penmanship, whether in the writing period or in individual work, it is essential to remember that:
    1. All up-strokes in the small letters must be well curved, see the lower right quarter of the first oval exercise, page 2, for the amount of the right curve and the upper left quarter of the second oval exercise for its degree of curve.
    2. All down strokes in the small letters must be straight and on a uniform slant, except those in c, o, a, and c, and the first down stroke in the "a" group. They should be made like those in the push and pull exercise on the same page.
    3. All the small letters can be readily arranged in five groups for practice work, hence the key letters i, u, 1, a, and t should receive constant attention. Small c, o, e, and r do not belong to any of these five groups, hence need special and persistent practice.
    4. All the capital letters are made with curved strokes, based on the oval, except the first down stroke in B, P, and R, hence the exercises on pages 16-21 of Compendium V are of special value-- exercises that can be practiced profitably both in the class period and during spare time.
    5. Like the small letters, the caps can be arranged in several groups for practice work. The 0 group includes C, D, and E. The H group, including nearly half of the caps, are the easiest, but the 8, G, and L group needs the most attention, particularly G.
    GENERAL PLAN OF PROCEDURE.-
    1. Practice the exercises on page 2 for two or three minutes spiritedly, with counting, at the beginning of each writing period, especially the lateral swing, the first exercise in Compendium 1.
    2. FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Practice the copies given on pages 2-7.
      THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Pages -
      FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 16-23.
      SEVENTH, EIGHTH AND NINTH MONTHS.-Pages 24-31.
    3. Practice the sentence, page 32, Compendium V, for it will be one of the items in each of the bimonthly tests for grades three to eight, inclusive.
    4. The upper grades will need to practice during spare time in order to improve their writing as much as is expected.
    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES

    BOOKS AND MATERIALS.-Hill & Lyman's Reading and Living, Book One, and Supplementary Readers; Pearson and Suzzallo's Essentials of Spelling; Hamilton's Standard Arithmetic, Book Three; Potter, Jeschke & Gillet's Oral and Written English, Book; Brigham & McFarlane's Essentials of Geography,. Book Two; Montgomery's Leading Facts in American History, Revised Edition; Forrnan's Essentials of Civil Government; Nida's Story of Illinois; Zaner & Bloser Correlated Handwriting, Cornpendium V; Practical Drawing, Correlated Art Edition, Book VII; tablet, practice paper, pen, ink, pencil and colored wax crayons.

    READING

    ORAL READING.-On entering these grades pupils should have a large reading vocabulary-the instantaneous recognition of all common words and their automatic pronunciation. They should also have a cultivated eye span that enables them to see groups of words at a glance and to see the words considerably in advance of the ones they are uttering. As a proof of their skill, they should be able to read ordinary fifth grade material fluently at sight. But there still remains much for them to learn in oral reading, for it is more than saying words fluently. It is expressing the thought so clearly and so convincingly that it is a pleasure to their hearers as well as to themselves. See Airns, pages 153 and 213, State Course.

    Some of the selections (poems, orations and conversations) in Reading -and Living lend themselves more readily for practicing oral reading than some of the other types of material. These should be discussed and studied to get the thought clearly in mind, then practiced frequently to improve the expression. The teacher should participate in this practice work sufficiently to give the pupils a good model to imitate, and at the same time she should ,,give them-n every encouragement to do their very best in expressing the thought.

    As a further aid in developing oral reading, each grammar grade pupil will read a selection, preferably his own choosing, something new to the school, in the opening exercises, at least once a quarter. He should be advised of the date of his turn early enough to allow him ample time to choose his selection and to practice it with the aid of the, teacher so that he may acquit himself creditably. Such practice in oral reading enhances the school work very greatly, for it gives him an opportunity to offer something that he feels is really interesting to an expectant and appreciative audience.

    MEMORIZING POEMS.-First study the poem in class to be sure that all difficult words can be pronounced and all poetic expressions are clearly understood. Next read orally, giving particular attention to, phrasing and inflection so as to secure the best expression. Be careful to avoid the singsong habit, also using the rising inflection at the end of any sentences except direct questions. It will be well for the teacher to read the poem to the class so that they will appreciate its meaning and its beauty. Then practice reading it orally, each reading all of it until it can be read smoothly without any 'hesitancy. Then begin to memorize the poem as a whole. Repeat from the beginning each time after consulting the text to overcome difficulties. Specially difficult portion- may be practiced separately if really necessary, but it is best to learn the poem as a whole rather than a line at a time or even a stanza at a time. Repeat the poem at odd times frequently enough to fix it in mind, and review frequently. Rightly presented, memorizing poetry is a keen joy rather than a task.

    SILENT READING.-Until quite recently but little time or attention was given to training pupils to read silently and effectively. Today all of the best schools stress it quite as much as they do oral reading, for it is a well established fact that a pupil's ability to study in the high school is largely dependent upon his ability to read to himself rapidly and understandingly. Some pupils seem to develop these two skills, speed and comprehension, without conscious effort, but most of them need systematic practice and special training along these two lines, and even the best can profit by it. Hence, teachers are urged to stress silent reading (increasing the speed and quickening the comprehension) in these two grades fully as much is they do oral reading.

    RATE OF READING.-At the beginning of the seventh grade, pupils should be able to read silently at the rate of about 200 words per minute, and the eighth grade about 250 words. During the year these rates should be increased about 50 words. Wherever classes or individual pupils are notably slow in silent reading, they should have daily exercises until their rate of reading approximates the standard rates. After that the frequency of practice may be once or twice a week.

    Every teacher should select a set of supplementary readers (easy fourths) to keep in her desk for practicing silent reading at sight at least twice a week. Then with parts of such selections as those found on pages 6, 32, 50 and 100 of Reading and Living they should practice at least once a week on material they are more or less familiar with. Read silently for one, two or three minutes, count the words read and record the rate per minute. At least ten such rates per month should be recorded until pupils are up to standard.

    QUICKENING COMPREHENSION.-With such selections in Story Hour Reader (descriptions, narratives and explanations) as lend themselves readily to the purpose, practice silent reading in recitation time to quicken the pupil's ability to comprehend-to select the paragraph topic and the principal supporting details on the first reading, also to make a brief outline of the, principal thoughts in their proper sequence.

    There are a number of selections in this text that can be used admirably for this purpose, and the, office has a number of study readers that can be borrowed for further practice work. This phase of reading should receive much critical attention, especially at the beginning of the year, so that the pupil's ability to study may be, improved markedly. It will be well to devote whole recitation periods now and then to practicing in history, geography and civics to show the pupils how to select and organize the important facts of an advanced assignment or even a chapter. It will save time in the year's work and will equip the pupil to do advanced work much more creditably.

    ADDITIONAL PRACTICE.-In addition to these class exercises to increase the rate and to improve the comprehension in silent reading, pupils should be encouraged to read library books at home. Each grammar grade, pupil should also read one supplementary reader 'a month during spare time at his seat, especially one on history, geography, health, civics, conduct or elementary science. The most interesting parts of such library books and readers should be retold in the reading and language classes and the choicest parts be retold to the whole school in the opening exercises, not only for the entertainment and information gained, but for practice in oral language.

    SUPPLEMENTARY READERS.-While Book I of Reading and Living provides ample material for class work in oral reading and much that can be profitably used in silent reading, these two grades should have access to much additional material to develop their skill in getting the thought from the printed page, also to give them a wider fund of information with which to interpret advanced studies. Hence, every teacher is urged to keep a set of supplementary readers in her desk for practice work in silent reading at sight. She is also urged to supply these pupils with other supplementary readers, especially those containing information on history, geography, etc., to be used during spare time at the seat. Try to give each a different book and then exchange. The more interesting parts should be reported to the class and the very best read or retold to the whole school at the opening exercises.

    LIBRARY READING.-No greater service can be rendered pupils than to introduce, them to good books and to encourage them to read freely, especially such books as are included in the Pupils' Reading Circle lists. But some of our school libraries haven't had any new books added for a long time and the old ones, good as they are, have, been read and reread until there is nothing in the library to satisfy the craving of the grammar grade pupils for inspiring and helpful reading. Hence, it is urged that every school make a substantial addition to its school library early in the year so that all, even the home folks, may enjoy them during the reading season-the fall and winter months.

    WORK OF THE YEAR.-The following lines of practice work need to be definitely emphasized:
    1. Discussing each advanced assignment in a conversational way to develop the thought.
    2. Then practice the ones best suited for improving oral expression frequently.
    3. Study the life of an author each month.
    4. Memorize a poetical selection each month.
    5. Practice retelling a story each month; then put in written form and file in the language portfolio.
    6. Summarize a library book each quarter.
    7. Practice drills in silent reading until each can approximate the standard rate for his grade.
    8. Reading a supplementary reader for practice in comprehension each month.
    9. Reading library books at home.
    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Pages 6-116, Reading and Living, Book 1. Make much use of Class Activities, and in so far is possible, read "additional readings." Choose such selections as those on pages 11, 21, 29, 34, etc., for frequent practice in oral reading, aiming to do more than saying the words. Try to express the thought. Such selections as those on pages 12, 23, 46, 62, etc., should be used in conversational recitations to develop the meaning and thereby improve the comprehension. Study a brief biography of Whittier the first month and one of Longfellow the second month. Memorize Part III of "Snowbound," page 38, and "The Household Fairy," page 79. Practice retelling such stories as "A Pioneer Home," page 12, and "The Freshman Full-Back," page 62. When well mastered, each will write the story as he re- calls it to file in his language portfolio. With such selections as "My Cats," page 6, and "Home Folks," page 46, practice silent reading in three-minute periods to determine the rate of each. Near the close of the quarter write a summary of a library book. Each will read a short story to the whole school in one of the opening exercises. Give special attention to the general review, page 85.

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Pages 116-232, Reading and Living, Book 1. 'Use the questions and suggestions in Class Activities freely, and read additional readings as much as possible. Use such selections as those on pages 116, 134, 136, 140, 161, etc., for frequent and purposeful practice in oral reading. Use such selections as those on pages 116, 128, 155, 177, etc., in conversational recitations to stimulate keener comprehension. Study a brief biography of Bryant the third month and one of Holmes the fourth month. Memorize "The Daffodils," page 215, and "Gaining Wings," page 134. Practice retelling such stories as "What Will Power Did for Me," page 116, and "The Football Game," page 140; and as soon as each is well mastered write it from memory and file in the portfolio. With such selections as "The Moonlight Schools," page 128, and "An Indian Boy's Training," page 155, practice-silent reading in three-minute periods and record the rates per minute. Near the close of the quarter, write a brief summary of a library book recently read. Each choose a short story to read to the whole school in one of the opening exercises. Give special attention to the general reviews, pages 163 and 22t.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 232-337. Continue to make full use of suggestions and questions in Class Activities and to read all available additional readings, Use such selections as those on pages 233, 237, 277, 285, etc., to develop keener comprehension. Study the lives of Poe and of Hemans. Memorize "The Red Cross Spirit Speaks," page 283, and the first six stanzas of "The Landing of the Pilgrims," page 315. Practice retelling such stories as "Sergeant Vaughn," page 235, and "The Elusive Fugitive," page 248, and when well mastered write each from memory to file. With such selections as "Israel Drake," page 259, and "The Old Time Physician," page 275, practice silent reading for three- minute periods and note if the rate of each is increasing. Near the close of the quarter write a brief summary of a library book recently read. Each choose a good story or poem to read to the whole school at one of the opening exercises. Give special attention to the general review, page 304.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Pages 337-450. Continue to make full use of the suggestions and questions in Class Activities and to read all available additional readings, and to develop good expression in oral reading by frequently practicing such selections as those on pages 337, 368, 381, 394, etc. Use such selections as those on pages 343, 352, 372, 382, etc., to develop broader and keener comprehension. Study the lives of Hawthorn and Lowell. Memorize at least five stanza of "The Heritage," page 431, and "Gradatim," page 478. Practice retelling such stories as "The Hardships of a Greenhorn," page 352, and "Dangers and Privileges in America," page 382, and when well mastered write each from memory to file. With such selections as "Finding Work," page 343, and "A Handful of Clay," page 406, practice silent reading in three-minute periods and note how near each one's rate is to the standard for his grade. Write a brief summary of a library book recently read, and each choose a short story or a poem to read to the whole school in one of the opening exercises. Give special attention to the review on page 394.

    NINTH MONTH.-Pages 451-486. Continue to make full use of the suggestions and questions in Class Activities and to read all the available additional readings; also continue to develop good oral reading by using such selections as those on pages 451-453, 460, 462, 478, etc., for frequent practice. Study a short biography of John G. Saxe. Memorize "the Best," page 462, and practice retelling the "Message to Garcia." Even though this is quite a lengthy story, try to master the essentials sufficiently to make a complete story, and when well mastered write it from memory and file it with the office. Use such selections as "The American Boy," page 464, for practice in silent reading. Choose a short story or a poem to read to the whole school, and make a special study of the general review, page 481.

    SPELLING

    VOCABULARY BUILDING-One's reading vocabulary(the words he can pronounce and comprehend in reading) is much larger than his writing vocabulary (the words he uses in letters, compositions, etc.) and this in turn is larger than the vocabulary he uses in conversation. It is one of the functions of the school to stimulate the pupil to draw on his reading vocabulary to enrich his writing vocabulary and his speaking vocabulary, thereby increasing his power to express himself clearly and with sufficient variety to be interesting. While much of this work properly belongs with the language and the reading, there are some very interesting and profitable things that can be done in connection with the spelling: (6.) definite and purposeful work in the study of prefixes and suffixes and making lists of words having the same ones; (b) discriminating choice of synonyms and the proper use of homonyms; (c) time contests in making lists of names of things used in the kitchen, school, home, on the farm or the things that grow in the garden, meadow or forest-kinds of food, grain, fruit, metals, etc.; (d) contests limited in time in making lists of verbs that can be used with such nouns as storm, stream, wind, sunshine; (e) similar contests in making lists of adjectives that can be used in describing things such as house, farm, automobile, person, horse, dog, etc.

    DICTIONARY WORK.-Among the most profitable phases of elementary school work, systematic training in the use of the dictionary ranks as one of the most important, Every school should have several Webster's Secondary School Dictionaries among its reference books. This work is accepted as standard wherever the English language is used, and is of convenient size for class work, hence teachers are urged to avoid cheap substitutes. These books, at least one for every two pupils in the largest class, should be used in this work: (a) for drills in finding words quickly; (b) for drills in selecting the proper definition; (e) for drills in determining correct pronunciation, which necessitates a good working knowledge of diacritical marks and syllabication; (d) for drills to familiarize pupils with the principal prefixes and suffixes and their use in word building; ((3) for drills in discriminating in the choice of synonyms. While much of the training should be given in the intermediate grades, teachers are requested to see that the grammar grade pupils are proficient in each of the lines mentioned

    WORK OF THE YEAR.-Following the plan similar to the one outlined for the fifth and sixth grades, the grammar grades will use the text the first three days of each week. Persistent effort on the part of the teacher and pupil will accomplish splendid results in securing better spelling in daily work and written examinations. On Friday of each week review diacritical markings and practice pronouncing new words involving their use. Make a critical study of prefixes and suffixes, using the derivative words in oral and written sentences.

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Pages 137-144, and reviews on pages 188-189. Practice word building with the following prefixes: un, dis, mis, re, auto, grapho, under, over, pre. Give frequent drills throughout the year in pronunciation, with special reference to accent. For table of diacritical marks see speller, page 176, or State Course, pages 170-171.

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Pages 145-151, with the review words on pages 190-191. Practice word building with the following prefixes: fore, phon, tele, rion, sub, super, anti, ante, un'l, bi. Learn the sounds of the long vowels in accented and in unaccented syllables and how each is marked. Continue drills in accent.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 152-159, and reviews on pages 192-193. Continue word building, using the following prefixes: il, im, [email protected] ill, per, trans, post, multi, semi, hemi, counter, contra, mal. Learn to use long Italian a, short Italian a, tilda e, long oo, short oo, and how each is marked.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Pages 160-171, with reviews, pages 193-194. Continue word building, using the following suffixes: at, or, er, est, less, ful, ti,on, sion, doni, able, ible. Learn the two sounds of c, g, ch, th, a, and how they are marked.

    NINTH MONTH.-Give drills in determining the pronunciation of new words by consulting the dictionary, in diacritical marking and the use of synonyms.

    ARITHMETIC - SEVENTH GRADE

    WORK OF THE YEAR.-The seventh grade will study chapters I and II, Hamilton's Standard Arithmetic, Book Three. All review work must be given with spirited drills to secure speed and accuracy. "Once over" the difficult portions is not sufficient. They must be recurred to frequently and supplemented with other material whenever necessary, so that all the arithmetic processes may become as nearly automatic to the pupil as possible. Oral problems must be studied and reviewed until the pupil can solve them mentally with case. The written work must be neatly done and orderly arranged- too much insistence can not be placed on this phase of the work. New terms and processes must be studied and explained so that pupils may attack new problems understandingly and appreciate the true meaning of all definitions and rules.

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Pages 7-39. Review the fundamental operations with integers, devoting at least three weeks to it, aiming to strengthen all weaknesses. Devote the rest of the two months to a thorough review of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of fractions and their use in solving practical problems.

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Pages 40-72. Review decimal fractions, with special stress on placing the decimal point. This should become as automatic with the pupil as dotting his i's in writing. Study the comparison of common and decimal fractions, then master all that is given in the elements of percentage.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 71-107. Review such portions of chapter I as the class may need. Study receipts (note the five items each must contain), accounts (emphasizing proper use of the two columns), discount, commission and taxes, also denominate numbers (see tables, pages 365-368). Omit taxation problems, pages 93-94, also United States postal rates, pages 105107, and devote the extra time to thorough reviews of difficult portions of common and decimal fractions and percentage.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Pages 108-138. Omit savings bank accounts, pages 125- 131, and devote the extra time to a review of profit and loss and denominate numbers. Review the more difficult portions of past work and study school shop work, market gardening and household problems, also simple interest and saving money.

    NINTH MONTH.-Review measurements, fractions and percentage, particularly those phases that involve the use of division, for these are the problems that cause more than half of the failures.

    ARITHMETIC - EIGHTH GRADE

    WORK OF THE YEAR.-The eighth grade will study chapters III and IV, Hamilton's Standard Arithmetic, Book Three. Some classes will need to review fractions, percentage and possibly denominate numbers and measurements as given in preceding chapters. Such reviews must be given early in the year and continued until pupils are well grounded in all the essentials of arithmetic. Spirited drills must be given, especially in the reviews and the oral work, to insure speed and accuracy. New terms and processes must be clearly explained so that pupils may attack the problems intelligently and have a clear understanding of the definitions and rules. Oral problems must be solved mentally, for sharp wits are better than sharp pencils in real arithmetic work, The solution of written problems must be in neat, orderly form.

    Insist on neat work, accurate work and quick work, and let the slogan for this year be: Every pupil able to solve every problem in this text at the close of school.

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Pages 139-182. Snappy drills and reviews must be given as often as necessary to make every pupil proficient in the arithmetic processes. Make a careful study of banks and banking, measurements and the problems in farming, forestry and the household. Omit Bank Discount, pages 142-146, and use the time thus saved in working for accuracy and speed. See pages 183-197. (The sixth, seventh and eighth grades may be combined from time to time to study and practice drawing to a scale.)

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Pages 183-224. The tests for accuracy and speed, pages 183- 197, should be conducted so that every pupil may gain increased power and the teacher dis cover and remedy all weak places in the pupil's training. Continue practicing drawing to a scale, master the problems from the school, and the industries and make a careful study of paying and collecting money.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 225-266. Drill frequently on tests for speed and accuracy, pages 256-258, and make a thorough study of mensuration, reviewing such portions of measurements in preceding chapters as may be necessary, and complete the two months' work by mastering the review problems, shop problems and the interpretation of problems.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Pages 267-330. The elementary algebra will require much careful attention, but it will prove a real aid to pupils if well taught. Stocks and bonds also will need special attention, even though the problems are not difficult. In the eighth month, place the emphasis on government income and expenditure, and the general review, leaving longitude and time for the last.

    NINTH MONTH.-Review problems involving division in percentage, measurements and fractions and thoroughly review all the algebra problems given in the text, so that these pupils may be well prepared for their mathematics in the high school.

    GRAMMAR

    The seventh and eighth grades in the one-room schools will recite together in this subject, but the eighth grade will be required to maintain distinctly higher standards than the seventh. The primary aims of this year's work are:

    First, to become so accustomed to the correct use of the terms commonly employed in discussing the sentence and its parts that each will be able to make himself understood readily and in turn to understand others clearly, particularly in the English classes of the high school. This calls for more than the usual passively receptive attitude on the part of pupils, and it requires much more practice material than any text offers, especially illustrative material that is well within the comprehension of the pupils. Hence, it is suggested that pupils and teachers accumulate lists of sentences) for individual practice outside the recitation period.

    Second, to strengthen habits of correct usage, which necessitates much more than discussing incorrect forms now and then in the recitation. The class should devise a wall chart to list the errors of speech commonly used by the four upper grades of the school. It can be started with just a few of the more glaring ones and might well be labeled "Sentence Imps to Banish." As rapidly as the first ones listed are banished, others can be added, ready to start on their way to oblivion. Saying the correct form aloud to one's self frequently is the best method yet devised to establish habits of correct speaking.

    Third, to improve one's ability to tell what he knows clearly and concisely, for no phase of school work, except reading, is of more practical value than skill in correct expression. Getting ideas (reading) and giving ideas (language) are the two most important skills the school can help to develop. But to improve language expression each needs to enlarge his vocabulary (word study), to become accustomed to the use of correct forms (correct usage), to develop his ability to organize his knowledge (outlining), and to acquire a fluency of expression that makes his best effort interesting and intelligent. These necessitate persistent. and thoughtful practice backed by a genuine desire for self improvement.

    One of the best forms of language practice is writing for the school magazine with a fixed determination to improve the language content of each succeeding issue. Try to have something to say rather than try to say something just to get a grade. Avoid centering the mind on petty mistakes-think big, write big, for the little errors soon pass as pride in good English grows.

    Each pupil will make two portfolios during the first quarter. In one he will file all his best letters, stories, compositions, etc., after they have been rewritten to improve the penmanship, spelling and language. In the other he will file his bimonthly examination papers and the best of his written lessons.

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Pages 3-45. Select a personal experience, think it through several times, then tell it to the class or to the school; likewise, practice telling how to make something or how a game is played. Make each as complete as possible, then write and rewrite it, checking with the rules on .7, and file. Learn to distinguish sentences at sight, from mere groups of related words, particularly those in which the predicate precedes the subject. Practice making sentences and expanding them by adding other words and phrases, even clauses. Learn to use the terms declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory (409) as readily and correctly as numerator and denominator in arithmetic. Practice using these terms with sentences from the text and the teacher's supplemental list. Learn to point out the subject and th- predicate, both simple (principal word) and entire at sight. Practice writing friendly letters and imaginative stories, also completing unfinished stories. Interline the first draft with additional thoughts and better expressions, then rewrite to file. Study "Columbus" and one of the poems to memorize, also the suggestions about memorizing, 45 and in the Manual. Prepare the best school magazine possible. Make it more than an exhibit book. Have it represent the very best in language the room can do in neat penmanship, correct spelling, proper punctuation and good capitalization, and especially in interesting stories of personal experience and local events that are well told.

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Page,, 46-76. Make frequent use of the review chapters for snappy drills in correct usage, proper pronunciation and in making and expanding sentences. In studying parts of speech, chapter 3, each grade needs to review its last year's work frequently. Recognizing parts of speech at sight and being able to distinguish adjectives and adverbs, prepositions from conjunctions, and predicate nouns from predicate adjectives readily, will require more practice work than the recitation period can provide. Hence, teachers will provide supplemental lists of sentences for her pupils to use in practice work at their seats. Give careful attention to word study, 61-67; make a list of all the homonyms given in the speller, and practice selecting synonyms through the year. Learn to make outlines and practice expanding them to use in writing and speaking, for they are prime requisites in all composition work above the lower grades. Study the last magazine critically to find where it can be improved most. Secure the cooperation of the other grades in the room and strive to improve it so definitely in its content and in its language expression that its betterment can be readily pointed out.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 77-122. Practice sentence exercises, 24-32, as an introduction to those on 77-86. Learn to recognize the simple subject and the simple predicate as well as' the entire subject and the entire predicate at sight, even in subordinate clauses and in sentences in which the subject follows the predicate. Give special attention to sentences beginning with "There." Then learn to distinguish predicate adjectives, predicate nouns and object nouns, also to point out adjective and adverb modifiers whether they are only one word, a phrase or a clause. Stress the study of clause modifiers, being sure to become able to point out the subject and the predicate of each. This will require much individual practice out of class, for "once over" in such work is far from sufficient to fix it in mind. Continue to practice pronouncing the list of mispronounced words. Study business letters to become accustomed to their form and draft, and rewrite letters of inquiry, remonstrance and explanation to file. Practice telling and writing about things seen and done, and retelling stories, aiming to secure the best to file. This quarter's magazine should be markedly better in variety of content and in fluent composition than the two that preceded it, but it will require thought and real effort.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Pages 123-153. Review the parts of speech, 48-60, preparatory to the work on 123 and 150, also review sentence study on 109 in preparation to that on 126 and 152. Make a careful study of principal and subordinate clauses, 120-132, and learn to distinguish compound and complex sentences at sigh'. Practice- making complex sentences; choose the best the class reports to make a list of 25 having adjective clauses and 25 other with adverb clauses. Meanwhile, find 10 with substantive (noun) clauses in the reader to add to the list. See pages 406412. In classifying sentences, learn to apply two names-one to describe its form, as simple, compound or complex, and the other to indicate its use, ,is declarative interrogative, imperative, exclamatory (409) thus, "simple interrogative," "complex declarative." The eighth needs to get clear ideas of the three connectives used in complex sentences, i. e., the relative pronoun, the relative adverb and the subordinate conjunction. Continue writing letters, stories and conversations, aiming to improve each by banishing the imps of English and improving the variety of expression. The best of the seventh and all of the eighth should be able to write interesting dialogues by the end of the year. Several of the best dialogues, completed unfinished stories and series of three or four business letters concerning misunderstanding may well be added to the school magazine, for it must be markedly better than any that has preceded it.

    NINTH MONTH.-The three aims of this year's work are to become so familiar with the terminology used in describing the sentence that each can readily understand and discuss it in the English classes in high school; (b) to improve one's ability to express himself orally and in writing. Hence, this month should be devoted to strengthening the phrases that are weakest, especially in mastering the complex sentence; to the study of the forms of analysis, diagramming and parsing, 407-415; and to reviewing the rules of capitalization and punctuation, 416-417.

    GEOGRAPHY

    Pupils of the seventh and eighth grades should be able not only to learn the facts of geography but to see these facts as a result of certain forces or causes. By studying the subject in this manner, they will be able to gain a broader understanding of the earth, its resources and the use that is made of them, and to fix these facts in mind more firmly.

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Study pages 1-52 and 255-259, to learn how the "Earth Shapes Man's Ways of Living;" why "Man is a Trader," and how and why "Man Changes the Earth." Study North America, making frequent use of the study-recitation. Study its location among the other continents, its comparative size, coast line, rivers and their work and uses. Fix in mind the factors of climate and the effect of altitude, latitude, nearness to large bodies of water and prevailing winds. In this connection, make a careful study of "World Winds," pages 255-259. Learn the cause of winds and describe and explain shore winds. Be able to name the wind belts in order (see figure 370, page 259), give the location- of each, the direction of the prevailing wind and characterize each belt as wet, dry, or medium. Explain how the ,shifting of the wind belts causes alternate wet and dry seasons.

    Note what is said of glaciers of the present time and of the glacial period of long ago, and their effects on the continent. Learn the difference between physical and political divisions. Name and locate the larger political divisions of North America, with the capital and trade centers of each. Make a products map of North America.

    Study the United States, making frequent use of the study recitation, especially to learn and comprehend "Ways of Showing Forms of Land" and interpreting the maps showing the physical and political features. Locate and explain the Fall Line. Study the climate of the United States, noting how it varies in the different sections, learning the causes of these variations as well as their effect on the products of the region and the industries of the people. Study the rainfall chart of the United States, figure 72, page 42; locate and explain the regions of light and heavy rainfall. Get a clear idea of the territorial growth of the United States. Study the population map, page 49. Locate and explain the regions of dense and sparse population. Study the railroad map of the United States, page 52. Learn where most of the railroads are located with the reason for this. Name the six leading exports of the United States, also some important imports. Study carefully paragraph 76, page 52. Study the physical maps of North America and United States. Read Allen's "North America," Ch. I; Carpenter's "North America" (latest edition), Ch. I.

    Study the New England States. Note that in the early times agriculture was the chief industry. Now manufacturing and commerce take the lead. Try to find out what geographical conditions and historic events caused this change. Name the seven leading manufactures of New England. Become familiar with a few representative cities as: Boston, the leather center; New Bedford, Fall River, Providence, Pawtucket, Lowell and Manchester noted for cotton manufacture; Woonsocket and Lawrence for woolens; Holyoke, Bangor and Augusta for paper; New Haven and Hartford ,or hardware; Waltham and Waterbury for watches and clocks. Make a special study of Boston. Learn of its commerce, manufacturing and places of historic interest. Locate the three important seaports, Boston, Providence and Portland, and the lake port, Burlington.

    Practice drawing memory map of Massachusetts, locating rivers, mountains, capital, chief cities and the bordering states.

    Locate the four physical divisions of the Middle Atlantic States and learn the products or industries for which each is noted. Study the drainage and observe the excellent commercial advantages offered by the ocean, 'he St. Lawrence and its tributaries, and the Ohio. Consult the map of North America to see how these Waterways connect the Middle States with Canada, Europe and the interior of the United States. Study the mineral resource-, and learn the industries resulting from them. Study the location and importance of the two great trade routes of these states. Make a special study of the industries of New York City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh and Buffalo. With the aid of the teacher, explain why New York has so far outgrown Boston on the north and Philadelphia( on the south. Locate Schenectady, Paterson, and West Point, learning the importance of each; also the ports, Erie, Rochester, Syracuse, Newark and Jersey City. Practice drawing a memory map of Pennsylvania, showing boundaries, mountains, rivers, capital and chief cities.

    Learn the physical divisions of the South Atlantic States and locate the Appalachian Valley. It is the "Garden Spot" of the South, Locate the three timber belts and learn the various timber products. Also the five leading crops and the states in which they flourish. Learn something of the gardening and fishing industries, and the growth of manufacturing. Note the recent drift of cotton manufacturing from New England to the South, especially to the Carolinas and Georgia. Give two reasons for this movement. Study the industries and commerce of Baltimore, the metropolis of the South. Locate Asheville and remember for what it is noted. Learn some important ports, as Wilmington, Norfolk, Charleston, Key West, Tampa and Pensacola. Locate Atlanta and study the importance of its position. Study the District of Columbia and the city of Washington. Practice memory maps of Virginia and Georgia. Read Allen's" North America," Ch. 2-4. Eighth grade will read Carpenter's "North America," Ch. 2-21 and 37-41.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Study the two groups of Central States, pages 113-154, and La Salle County. Note the physical divisions of the South Central States and the peculiar divisions............In studying the North Central States locate and describe the prairies, the uplands and the plains, and learn the products and industries for which each is specially fitted. Study the maps, showing the wheat and corn belts, also the region where cattle and hogs are raised. Note and explain the location of dairy cattle. See maps on pages 136, 138, 140 and 141. Study the map on page 144 showing the distribution of iron ore from the Lake Superior district. Locate the mineral and timber regions. Study the development of manufacturing and learn its causes. Study land and water transportation to show how commerce has helped to develop these states. ) Locate the "Soo" canal. More freight passes through it than through any other canal in the world. Make a list of the important articles of commerce passing through it. Make a special study of Chicago, the metropolis of the St. Lawrence Valley. Account for its growth. Study St. Louis, the metropolis of the Mississippi Valley. Locate Minneapolis, Duluth, Superior and Detroit. Why is each important? Locate also Milwaukee, Toledo, Akron, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Peoria, Kansas City, Topeka, St. Paul and Salute St. Marie. Locate the five leading meat-packing centers. Read Allen's "North America," Ch. 4-6. Eighth grade will read Carpenter's "North America," Ch. 22-36 and 42-44.

    Make a study of La Salle County, using an outline map. (These maps will be furnished by the office upon request.) Learn its location, surface, area, boundaries, its political divisions into towns or townships. On the map locate the streams that drain it. Study the cities and villages as to location, size, importance. Determine why farming and mining are the leading occupations. Learn about the magnitude of crops of grain grown and the value of the output of coal and other minerals. Locate the manufacturing centers and learn what is produced in in each; also determine why a factory was located in that place. Draw a map of La Salle County, locating townships, rivers, railroads, cities and villages.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Study the Plateau and Pacific States and Outlying Possessions, pages 155-197. Fix in mind the physical features of the Plateau States. Compare the surface, elevation, climate, vegetation, occupation of these states with that of the states lying to the east, and account for some of the differences. Study carefully what is said about grazing, irrigation, dry farming, mining, paying special attention to the effect of each industry on the character and life of the people. Learn something of forest preserves and the work of the Reclamation Service. Locate Denver, Pueblo, Butte, Anaconda, Salt Lake City, Ogden, Reno and Albuquerque. Compare the railroad development of this section with that of the central and eastern states and account for the difference. See map, page 52. Practice drawing memory map of Utah. Note the position of the mountains in the Pacific States and study their effect on climate. Study the rainfall map, page 42, and observe that east of the Rocky Mountains the rainfall decreases as one moves north or west. Explain why northwestern Washington has the heaviest rainfall in the United States. Contrast it with the extreme drouth found in southern and southeastern California. Study the agriculture of the great valleys, the fisheries of Puget Sound and the Columbia, the timber of the mountain slopes and the minerals. Note two kinds of manufactures: (a) those using raw materials produced in the section, such as wheat, timber, fruit, fish, metals; (b) articles which would be expensive if shipped by the long, steep road over the mountains, such as dairy products, packed meat, etc. Observe the commercial advantages offered by the river valleys, Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay. Consult a globe or the world map, page 284, and learn what countries and islands are conveniently situated for commerce with those states. With the aid of the teacher, study the effect of the Panama Canal on the commerce of this section. See Nida's "Story of the Panama Canal," pages 31-32, and Carpenter's "North America," Ch. 74. @ Locate and learn the importance of San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego, Portland, Tacoma, Seattle and Spokane Falls, Colon and-,Panama. Practice sketching memory map of California.

    In studying our Outlying Possessions one of the most important points to learn is their commercial relations with the United States, i. e., what they produce that we need and what we produce that they need. Learn our general plan of colonial Government. Study the history, physical features, climate, industries and products of Alaska and learn how it may be of value to the 'United States. Locate, Juneau ,Nome and Fairbanks. Read Allen's "North America" Ch. 6- 10, and Carpenter's "North America," Ch. 45-60.

    Learn how we gained possession of Port Rico, the Hawaiian Islands and the Philippines. Study their climate, products and industries. Note that they are in about the same latitude and their climate and products are similar. Name an important export of the Philippines not raised to any extent in the others. Locate San Juan, Poncho, Honolulu and Manila. Read about the island possessions in Carpenter's "Australia and Islands of the Sea."

    NINTH MONTH.-Canada, Mexico, Central America and the West Indies, pages 199-217. Compare the surface and climate of Canada with that of the United States. Locate regions of timber and minerals. Compare her products and industries with those of the United States. With the aid of the teacher, decide whether Canadian commerce will be an advantage or a disadvantage to the United States. Learn the capital of Canada. Locate Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Study Mexico and Central America, using the same plan as in the study of Canada. Locate Mexico and Vera Cruz. Read Allen's "North America," Ch. 11-21. Eighth grade will read Carpenter's "North America," Ch. 61-73.

    U. S. HISTORY

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Pages 1-66. By discussing in turn the several units of study of this assignment in study recitation, aim to get a clear preview of each unit and through subsequent recitations and reviews fix in mind the achievements of the Northmen, Marco Polo, Columbus, the Cabots, Vespucci, Magellan and the twelve other early explorers. Make a careful study of the world knowledge and ideas prior to 1492; also of European trade and trade routes. Distinguish the East and West Indies. Locate these two groups of islands.

    Learn the physical characteristics of America and the effect of its discovery upon Europe. Study the Indian, his characteristics, religion, manner of life and his influence on the white settler. The chronology of this period should be studied by centuries rather than years. The student should learn to think of the sixteenth century (1501- 1600) as a century of exploration and discovery. The Seventeenth century (1601-1700) was a period of settlement and colonization. ,During this time twelve of the thirteen English colonies were settled. France got possession of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi Valleys and Spain gradually extended her settlements over what is now southwestern United States. The following dates should be memorized: 1492, 1607.

    Learn the history of the settlement and development of Virginia, New York and New Jersey as a whole, rather than as groups of loosely connected facts. Learn how the overlapping claims to territory in America by Spain, France, England, Holland and Sweden caused many disputes and even wars in later years.

    In studying the history of any colony the following points should be thoroughly mastered: Location, purpose of settlement, character of settlers, form of government, especially the measure of self-government, religious toleration, industries, education, results, i. e., what kind of colony was developed and for what it was noted. An excellent discussion of the conditions leading to the colonization of America may be found in Beard & Bagley's History, pages 33-47.

    Note carefully the influence of such men as Smith, Dale, Berkley and Bacon in Virginia; Hudson, Minuit and Stuyvesant in New York. They were history makers with whom every boy and girl should be acquainted. Topics of special importance are the land reforms, influence of tobacco, House of Burgesses, introduction and influence of slavery, Navigation Laws, Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia; the Patrol system, commerce, and the overthrow of the Dutch government in New York. Read "Story of the Thirteen Colonies," Ch. 1-27; "Explorers and Founders," (see contents, page 9); "Stories of Early American History," Ch. 1-11; "Studies in American History," Book I, pages 1-166; "Washington and His Country," pages 1-26; "Introduction to American History," Ch. 1826; "American Beginnings in Europe," Ch. 21-27; "Story of Agriculture in the United States," Ch. 1-2.

    Note-The teacher should read or tell to the class an account of the Spanish Armada, 1588, and explain its significance. It marks the beginning of the decline of Spain as a world power and the ascendancy of England. See "Studies in American History," Book 1, pages 129-133; "Explorers and Founders of America," pages 99-101; introduction to American History, Ch. 25; American Beginnings in Europe, Ch. 27.

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Pages 66-114. Complete the study of the settlement and growth of the remaining ten English colonies and review the essential events in the preceding three. Study the French explorations in the West, using the map on page Ill frequently. The assignment naturally divides itself into eleven study units, each of which should be discussed in study recitations to enable the pupil to get the preview and help to develop an outline for the study of each colony. Then through recitations and reviews, master the history of each as a whole. Be sure that the history of the four leading colonies-Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania-are thoroughly mastered. Make much........

    Confederation, the Connecticut Constitution and Charter in New England; the Toleration Act, Clayborne Rebellion in Maryland; the Holy Experiment, the Great Treaty, the Great Law in Pennsylvania. The teacher should explain the influence -of the English Revolution, 1640-1649, culminating in the execution of King Charles I; the rule of Cromwell, 1649-1658; the Restoration of Charles II, 1660; the second revolution and crowning of King William, 1689. The dates need not be learned by the class but are useful in explanations. Remember the date 1620.

    For general reading on this period see "Story of the Thirteen Colonies", Ch. 28-48; "Explorers and Founders of America," see contents, page 9; "Stories of Early American History," Ch. 12-16, and Ch. 18-20; "Studies in American History," pages 137-241; "Washington and His Country," pages 27-54; "Story of Agriculture in the United States," Ch. 3-4.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-Pages 114-169. This a occupies most of the eighteenth century. The pupils should be able to trace three lines of development: internal growth of the colonies, "making roots," as the text expresses it; struggle for the control of the continent, ending in the battle of Quebec; the growth of democracy, independence and self-government, resulting in the Declaration of Independence and the establishment of the United States.

    Fix in mind the location of the French and English settlements, note how they conflict in the Ohio Valley. Remember that since the decline of Spain, France and England were the two great countries of Europe, and they had been enemies for centuries. Get a clear idea of the causes of the war. Study the Ohio Company and the Albany Convention, the forerunner of other congresses. Learn about Washington's journey, Braddock's defeat, the battle of Quebec. Learn well the results of the war, paragraphs 143-144, pages 133-134 of the text. Make a careful study of the state of the country in 1763. See "Stories of Early American History," Ch. 17; "Story of Agriculture in the United States," Ch. 5-8.

    Study the Revolutionary War. Discuss the causes of this war, including the work of the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, the First Continental Congress in 1774. Make a list of these causes. Learn about the battles around Boston, the work of the Second Continental Congress and particularly the Declaration of Independence. Read it in Appendix 1. Get a clear view of the battles around New York, including Trenton. Explain why Burgoyne's Invasion -,vas the "turning point" of the war. Learn about the battles near Philadelphia and the winter at Valley Forge. Get the story of Clark's expedition to Illinois and Indiana. Explain why it was so important. Learn about. Arnold's treason and the work of the navy, especially Paul Jones. Study the campaigns of the South and learn the story of Cornwallis' surrender and the victory at Yorktown, for that victory insured our independence. Distinguish between the turning point of the war and the final engagement. Continue to make use of the history story books to learn more about the lives of such patriots as Washington, Franklin, Adams, Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Greene, LaFayette, Robert Morris, Paul Jones, George Rogers Clark; also about the Committees of Correspondence, Minute Men, Sons of Liberty, Declaration of Independence, and making of the flag. Three terms used in the study of the Revolution are vaguely comprehended by the pupils: Declaration of Independence, Continental Congress, and Articles of Confederation. These should receive special attention. Learn 1776, 1781, [email protected]') and 1787.

    For the French and Indian War see "Washington and His Country," pages 55-130; "Explorers and Founders of America," pages 274-295; "Stories of Early American History," Ch. 21-22; "Story of the Thirteen Colonies," Ch. 49-56. For Revolution see "Washington and His Country," pages 130-492; "Studies in American History," pages 245- 297; "Stories of the Thirteen Colonies," Ch. 57-84; "Makers and Defenders of America," pages 9-110; "Side Lights on American History," pages 1-23, "Studies in American History," pages 245-297.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Pages 170-198. Learn when, where, how and by whom the Treaty giving our country independence was made, and how petty jealousies among the colonies kept them from being united in a common country even though they had won their independence; bow the wise counsels of leaders and the possession of the Northwest Territory kept them from separating. Be sure you know how far north, south and west the territory of the United States extended at that time. Make a careful study of the Articles of Confederation and the Ordinance of 1787, noting its provisions and importance. I t was.,; the most important law that had been passed in America.

    The years from 1783 to 1789 are sometimes called the "Critical Period" of the United States history. Try to understand why. Learn how, where, when and by whom the constitution was made and how it was adopted and when it went into operation. Learn well its advantages over the Articles of Confederation. See paragraph 107, page 175; also "Burnham," chapter 8, "Beard & Bagley," Ch. 10; "Side Lights to American History," Ch. 2.

    The administrations of Washington and Adams are sometimes called the Federalist Period. Why? Get a clear idea of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic War, and their influence on the United States. Study the administration of Washington, noting the following subjects: political parties with their leaders and principles, financial difficulties, foreign complications, domestic discontent, the western movement. Learn the story of Whitney and the cotton gin, noting its effect on industry, and the slavery question. Learn the provisions of the Alien Law and the Sedition Law. Discuss the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Do they express a safe principle of government? Continue to make much use of the history story books to learn more about Washington, Adams, Hamilton, Jay, and the western emigration led by Boone, Robertson, Sevier and others; also about the "critical period." See "Washington and His Country," pages 484-522; "Makers and Defenders of America," pages 111-148; "Story of the Great Republic," Ch. 3-12; "Side Lights on American History," pages 24-115; "Burnham," pages 233-249; "Beard & Bagley," pages 217-227; "Story of Agriculture in the United States," Ch. 9-11.

    Study the effect of the Napoleonic War on United States history. Show how the purchase of Louisiana, the Embargo Act and the Non-Intercourse Act were direct results of this war. Study the expedition of Lewis and Clark, noting its effect on our claims to the Oregon Territory. Study the effect of steam navigation on the settlement and the commerce of the West.

    NINTH MONTH.-Our chief interest in Madison's administration centers in the War of 1812. Study its causes and leaders. Note its results (a) on American industries and politics; (b) on our standing with other nations. Read "Story of the Great Republic," pages 75-91; "Makers and Defenders of America," pages 149-161; "Washington and His Country," pages 528-535; Burnham, pages 233-249; Beard & Bagley, pages 217-227. Learn the dates 1789 and 1803.

    CURRENT EVENTS

    A systematic study of the world news was made an integral part of our course of study several years ago and has proved to be both interesting and profitable. Each school is given a paid subscription to "Current Events," an unbiased weekly newspaper for upper grade pupils that is recognized throughout the country as thoroughly dependable. The district or the parents should subscribe for additional copies where the enrollment is large enough to warrant it, particularly in the village schools. It would be well, too, if "The Weekly Reader" for the intermediate grades could be made available in every school.

    This news of the day-in reality, history in the making-will be read individually by the upper grade pupils and the various items of world news discussed by them in the opening exercises or in a reading or a language period devoted to this purpose. Splendid work in this field has been done by the schools that possessed the right leadership. Many surprisingly well written articles reviewing last year's happenings were submitted in the final last spring, and it is confidently believed that even better ones will be forthcoming at the close of the current year.

    Short tests in current events will be given in each bimonthly examination, and at the end of the year each examination center will be given four or five topics from which each grammar grade pupil may choose the one that he feels he can discuss the most logically and completely.

    First Six Months

    NOTE.-Each school will receive a copy of "Current Events," as heretofore, and it is recommended that as many pupils as possible subscribe for a copy to be sent with the one that comes in the teacher's name. Teachers are urged to use a recitation period each Friday to discuss such news items as can be readily correlated with the study of Civics, whether they apply to the current lessons of the week or to those that will be studied later in the year. For instance, an item is found that relates to some phase of state government, discuss it and consult the text to find wherein the activity mentioned fits into the general plan of state organization. Again, an item appears about the President, a member of his cabinet, congress or the courts, consult the text to find which of their duties or powers were employed. This will necessitate using conversational recitations and the repeated reference to the text on the more important phases of government. It will necessitate, too, rather full explanations by the teacher, at the beginning of the year, but the pupils will soon become so well versed in this phase of the work that they can make the citations in the text and explain the relation between the item and the constitutional provisions.

    As half of the test in Civics in the finals next spring, grammar grade pupils will have an opportunity to give their version of the more important articles appearing in this school newspaper that will illustrate the phases of civil government which they have studied during the year. Each will have a chance to choose the one of the three subjects offered at his examination center that he feels he can write most readily.

    FIRST AND SECOND MONTHS.-Try to-get clear notions of the meaning of "government" and to realize why government in the home and the school is so essential to the comfort of the family and to the efficiency of the school, so that each may enjoy all the rights and privileges of each of these that are not harmful or disturbing to other members of the group. Chapters I to V should be studied as a unit rather than piecemeal and they should be used as an introduction to Chapter VI on "Who are citizens" of the state and nation.

    Then study the civil rights of citizens, chapters VII and VIII; their political rights, chapters 1X and X on "Who are Voters" and "Elections" and the duties of citizens, chapter XI.

    THIRD AND FOURTH MONTHS.-Review and discuss the previous assignment so that the major items may be clearly understood, then study the powers of government, chapters XII, XIII and XIV, as a unit, and learn to enumerate and explain the principal ones. Inasmuch as the chapters on local government, pages 80 to 116, are so broadly generalized that it is confusing when applied to local organizations, it is recommended that this unit be omitted.

    Then study the organization of state governments, chapters XXI to XXVI, aiming to get a clear notion of the meaning of "Constitution," how it is made, and how it can be changed, i. e., amended. Learn about the legislature, its organization and function; also something about the powers and duties of the governor and other state officials. Try to get a clear idea of how the courts are graded and what useful purposes they serve.

    FIFTH AND SIXTH MONTHS.-In studying the national government, try to compare it in as many ways as possible with the state government, for they are very much alike in many ways, e. g., their constitutions are similar, their legislative branches are similar, only one is called the legislature and the other congress. The executives are similar, too, only one is termed governor and the other president; however, the governor has no cabinet as does the president, and the executive department, headed by cabinet members, have no counterpart in a state organization. Make a special study of taxes, chapters XXVII and XXVIII. Omit the other four chapters in the back of the book.

    HISTORY OF ILLINOIS

    Last Two or Three Months

    Please note that the time in which this subject can be studied has been shortened so that more time could be devoted to Civics and to Current Events. However, it is amply sufficient for gaining clear concrete ideas of the history of our state, if the subject matter is divided into large study-discussion units and the pupils practice outlining and retelling the important events and writing about the entire unit repeatedly, rather than trying to organize and orient all of its petty details. They will need to group paragraph topics, even to consolidate chapters in order to master the subject comprehensively.

    Schools that have inventive, resourceful teachers and are blessed with thoughtful, energetic pupils will have no difficulty in gaining a usable and concrete story about the transformation of Illinois from primeval forests and prairies into one of the wealthiest and strongest commonwealths of the union, and of the great men who led it on its upward march.

    SEVENTH AND EIGHTH MONTHS.-Each of the following ten units of study should be developed into a connected story, for they will be used in the final next spring in the same manner that Current Events topics have been used in recent years. . Many of the more studious pupils will, no doubt, develop these stories by themselves during spare time earlier in the year, and in the best schools these pupils should be invited to tell some of them in the opening exercises.

    Unit 1. Illinois under Indian control. Try to image the virgin forests, prairies and streams of Illinois prior to the coming of the French, and practice telling about Indian life amid such surroundings-their food, clothing, implements, and wigwams; also their work, pastimes and wars.

    Unit 2. Father Marquette, Joliet, La Salle and Tonti gave France a valid claim to the Mississippi Valley. Try to picture in your mind two birch bark canoes starting from St. Ignace in 1673. Enlarge the picture by following them in their 2,500 mile trip, and practice telling the outstanding events of the journey, and add the

    SCHOOL LIBRARIES AND THE PUPILS' READING CIRCLE

    Last year 3,722 pupils in the village and rural schools read 75,123 library books, an average of 20 books per pupil. This is a splendid record, and when compared with the averages of recent it speaks eloquently of the improvement these schools are making in this important phase of educational work. During this five-year period, 1928-33, 3,926 pupils read 68,353 library books per year, an average of 17.4 apiece, and in the preceding period, i. e., 1923-29, 3,713 pupils read 56,377 volumes per year, an average of 15.1 apiece,

    This remarkable improvement was made in spite of the fact that the enrollment in these schools has remained practically stationary and that fewer new books have been added to the school libraries in recent years than formerly. It is earnestly hoped, however, that as times improve a more generous attitude will be Manifested toward replenishing our school libraries. Most districts can well afford to add at least a dollar's worth of new books per pupil enrolled, for several years in succession.

    Reading good library books is more than wholesome self-entertainment, even though it is the cleanest and most invigorating a child may undertake. It possesses an educative value far beyond what is usually accorded it, for the pupil who reads such books freely unconsciously becomes more and more skillful in getting the thought from the printed page, hence, he can study more effectively. Likewise, he unconsciously enlarges and improves his vocabulary to such an extent that he can express his thoughts more fluently, hence,. he can recite more advantageously. These facts can be readily verified by comparing the general averages of 9 large number of graduates to note whether the pupils who used the school library freely or the others made the better records in the finals and in their high school courses. The county superintendent feels that these facts have been so clearly demonstrated that he urges teachers and directors to do everything in their power to promote the library work our schools are doing.

    LIBRARY DIPLOMAS

    To provide encouraging recognition for commendable library reading, a series of attractive diplomas has been designed-one for each year of the elementary school course. It is expected that, with this recognition and the encouragement of the teacher, practically every pupil will have earned all of these awards by the time lie graduates from the eighth grade.

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